Metropolitan Museum - HEILBRUNN TIMELINE OF ART HISTORY - Guinea Coast, Central Africa, Southern Africa... 1900 A.D.–present:
CRONOLOGIA ÁFRICAS (selecção)
1937 The Fine Arts School is founded at Makerere College in Kampala, Uganda, and Margaret Trowell is appointed its director. She develops a curriculum that cultivates and preserves indigenous African styles and aesthetic values while introducing new media and methods of art production such as silkscreen printing and easel painting. Promising students, such as Tanzanian painter Sam Ntiro (1923–1993), are sent to study at the Slade School of Fine Art and the Royal Academy of Arts in London. The work of her students is displayed at the Imperial Institute, London, in 1939.
1938 Walter Battiss (1906–1982), Alexis Preller (1911–1975), and other young South African artists coalesce as the New Group in response to the British-inspired academicism of current South African art. Having seen indigenous African artworks such as San rock paintings, the artists seek an alternative modern art rooted in the integration of African and European aesthetics, and organize exhibitions showing work of black South African artists such as painter Gerard Sekoto (1913–1993). The New Group, and South African artists in general, benefit from the immigration of European intellectuals fleeing the totalitarian regimes emerging in Europe at this time.
1948 Apartheid in South Africa commences as the Afrikaner National Party comes to power under the leadership of Daniel F. Malan and the all-white parliament.
1948 The Polly Street Centre is established in Johannesburg as a community center for black township youths. Cecil Skotnes (born 1926) becomes the director of the arts workshop in 1952, and encourages students to study West and Central African sculpture. Artists such as Durant Sihlali, Ephraim Ngatane, Sydney Kumalo, Ben Macala, Louis Maqhubela, Lucas Sithole, and Helen Sebidi receive their initial training there.
1948 South African artist Ernest Mancoba (1904–2002) participates in the HØST COBRA exhibition in Copenhagen.
1950s-60s Amancio Guedes, a Portuguese architect residing in Maputo, Mozambique, organizes informal workshops for young artists. Among the participants is Malangatana Ngwenya (born 1936), whose paintings are later shown by the Mbari Artists and Writers Club in Ibadan, Nigeria. (a nota faz uma antedatação: será de facto 1960s)
1950s-60s Western-educated Sudanese artists Ibrahim el-Salahi (born 1930) and Ahmad Muhammad Shibrain (born 1931) establish what becomes known as the Khartoum School. Inspired in part by the pictographic compositions of Paul Klee and others interested in symbolic forms of visual communication, they utilize Arabic calligraphy as the foundation for their art.
1951 Drum, a magazine devoted to African news and events, is founded in South Africa. Its abundant photography provides a visual chronicle of the decades before and during the independence of the continent's former colonies.
1954 Frank McEwen (1907—1994), a British artist active in the Parisian avant-garde movements of the 1930s, helps establish the National Gallery of Rhodesia (later Zimbabwe) and becomes its first director in 1956. Like other figures of the international art world in the late 1940s and '50s (such as Jackson Pollock), McEwen is interested in Jungian concepts of the collective unconscious. He attempts to cultivate what he terms the "innate African aesthetic" lurking within the indigenous subconscious by providing aspiring African artists with art materials. McEwen is particularly inspired by the stone sculptures found among the ruins of Great Zimbabwe and encourages his students, who are the Shona descendants of Great Zimbabwe's builders, to experiment with stone carving as a means of channeling creative forces held over from earlier times. Thomas Mukarobgwa, Paul Gwichiri, Samuel Songo, Nicholas Mukomberanwa, Joram Mariga, and John Takawira, who represent the core artists associated with the project, work in a semi-abstracted organic style reflecting concepts drawn from Shona mythology. In 1965, the newly formed white minority government of Ian Smith blacklists McEwen for fraternizing with black Africans and in 1969 the studio project is forced out of the National Gallery.
1955 Saburi O. Biobaku and Ulli Beier found Odù: A Journal of Yoruba and Related Studies at the University of Ibadan, Nigeria.
1956 Sudan gains independence from Britain.
1957 Ulli Beier founds Black Orpheus, a journal of African arts and literature, in Ibadan, Nigeria.
1958 South Africa gains independence from England.
1958 The Zaria Art Society, which later becomes the Zaria Rebels, is organized at the Nigerian College of Arts, Science, and Technology in Zaria by Demas Nwoko, Bruce Onobrakpeya, S. Irein Wangboje, Yusuf Grillo, William Olaesebikan, Simon Okeke, and Uche Okeke.
1958 Nigerian author Chinua Achebe publishes Things Fall Apart, which quickly gains international recognition
1959 Under the patronage of Mohammed Peera, a Dar es Salaam merchant, Makonde artist Samaki Likankoa begins to produce nnandenga sculptures, also known as shetani. Sinuous, abstracted forms representing subjects and ideas drawn from Makonde oral traditions, the works are sculpted from African blackwood. The new sculptural genre draws interest from European and American expatriates living in East Africa, and works created by Likankoa and other artists are exhibited in museum shows and catalogues devoted to modern African art.
early 1960s A series of workshops is organized in Oshogbo, a town outside of Ile-Ife, Nigeria, by Ulli Beier, Georgina Beier, and Susanne Wenger, members of the faculty at the University of Ife. The instructors teach drawing and printmaking techniques and encourage their students to engage their own Yoruba folklore and belief system for inspiration. Among the most famous of the Oshogbo workshop graduates is Twins Seven Seven (born 1944), whose drawings and prints depict human, animal, and vegetal forms in compositions drawn from Yoruba mythology.
1960s–70s Nigerian sign painter Augustine Okoye, called "Middle Art," is promoted by Ulli Beier and emerges as an internationally recognized artist. Perhaps because of his early experience with advertising, Middle Art's paintings on plywood are characterized by an overtly narrative.
1960s–70s Austrian artist Susanne Wenger (born 1915) initiates the reconstruction of several sacred groves dedicated to Yoruba orishas located at Oshogbo, outside of Ile-Ife. With the help of Yoruba artists Buraimoh Gbadamosi (born 1936) and Adebisi Akanji (born 193-), among others, Wenger rebuilds the shrines in cement-covered clay employing a sculptural language of organic curves and abstracted forms.
1960 Former British colony Nigeria becomes an independent state while Côte d'Ivoire, Dahomey (Benin), and Togo achieve independence from France.
1960 The African Art Centre is founded in Durban, South Africa, to promote the work of rural and urban artists in KwaZulu-Natal. Grassroots art forms such as contemporary beadwork, pottery, and basketry woven from colored telephone wire and grasses are patronized by providing income and outlets for creative innovation among local artisans. Many of these art forms are expressive of social movements mobilized against racial inequality, women's rights, and, since the 1980s, the spread of HIV/AIDS.
1960 Somalia gains independence from Italy and Britain.
1961 Tanganyika (later Tanzania) gains independence from Britain and Julius Nyerere is elected its first president.
1961 - The Mbari Writers and Artists Club is founded in Ibadan by a group of young intellectuals, including authors Wole Soyinka, John Pepper Clark, Ezekiel Mphahlele (a South African), and Cyprian Ekwensi, composer Akin Euba, artists Demas Nwoko, Uche Okeke, and Bruce Onobrakpeya, and Ulli Beier, a teacher at Ibadan University. Mphahlele is its first president. Created to inspire and encourage the continuing development of the arts, Mbari exhibits the work of many modern artists such as Malangatana Ngwenya (Mozambique), Jacob Lawrence (U.S.), Ibrahim el-Salahi (Sudan), Vincent Kofi (Ghana), Skunder Boghossian (Ethiopia), Susanne Wenger (Austria), and others. (Amâncio Guedes orienta um workshop em 61, ou 62 com Julian Beinart)
1962 The establishment of the Mbari-Mbayo Club in Oshogbo, Nigeria, is celebrated with a performance of Duro Ladipo's play Oba Moro (The King of Ghosts). In 1964, Ladipo publishes his trilogy on the history of the Kingdom of Oyo, which includes Oba Moro as well as Oba Koso (The King Did Not Hang) and Oba Waja (The King Is Dead), and opens two Yoruba operas at the Berlin Theater Festival.
1962 The First International Congress of African Culture, organized by Frank McEwen to discuss the aesthetics of contemporary African art, is held in Salisbury, Rhodesia (now Harare, Zimbabwe). Participating artists include Malangatana Ngwenya (apenas exposto não esteve presente), Vincent Kofi, and Ben Enwonwu. Alfred Barr of the Museum of Modern Art in New York, Nigerian historian S. O. Biobaku, the British Surrealist painter Roland Penrose, and Tristan Tzara, founder of the Zurich Dada movement, attend. (Amâncio / Pancho Guedes intervém na sessão de abertura e faz uma comunicação sobre o seu trabalho de arquitectura, apresentado por T. Tzara; expõe Malangatana e mais 3 artistas de Moçambique e apresenta ainda uma orquestra de marimbeiros de Zavala)
late 1960s The birth of the "Nsukka Group" a loose-knit collection of Igbo artists whose creative activities are centered at the University of Nigeria, Nsukka, in the southeast. Some of the artists, including Uche Okeke (born 1933), Demas Nwoko (born 1935), and Bruce Onobrakpeya (born 1932), were earlier associated with the Zaria Art Society and the University of Ibadan, but are forced to leave these regions when faced with anti-Igbo pogroms at the outbreak of civil war. Their return to the Igbo homeland inspires many of the artists to draw upon indigenous Igbo aesthetics, particularly the graphic traditions of uli and nsibidi, for inspiration. While the work of the Nsukka Group is diverse in appearance, it can be characterized by a tendency toward abstract compositions with a strong linear quality.
1970s-80s As opposition to apartheid grows, many South African artists utilize their creative abilities to speak out against racial oppression. Artist collectives such as Afrapix, formed in 1985 by a group of multiracial photographers, seek to expose and redress the conditions of life under apartheid. They receive support from the African National Congress, which, in 1987, joins the Dutch anti-apartheid movement in sponsoring the creation of Culture in Another South Africa (CASA) in Amsterdam. An accompanying conference organized to discuss the future of a multiracial South Africa attracts over 300 South African artists.
1975 Angola gains independence from Portugal. Mozambique gains independence from Portugal.
(*) - a confirmar:
1960 - Ulli Beier organizes the independence exhibition in Lagos, where the works of key members of the Zaria Society are shown.
in South African History Online (SAHO) http://www.sahistory.org.za/pages/africa/african-union/timeline.htm
outra versão: Uche Okeke. In 1960,... he co-organised with Bruce Onobrakpeya and Demas Nwoko, the Nigerian Independence Exhibition at Victoria Island, Lagos.( http://www.pendulumartgallery.com/triumph/works_of_uche_okeke.htm ) não parece ter confirmação...
Mbari Writers and Artists Club
"Artistic activity coalesced around the Mbari Club, founded by a diverse group of artists, writers, musicians and actors in the neighbouring city of Ibadan. Their intention was to develop a strong artistic identity for the new nation, celebrating Nigerian traditions while drawing on elements from other cultures. Mbari was an international environment, attracting artists from across Africa and beyond. Amongst the foremost visual artists associated with the group were Nigerians Bruce Onobrakpeya and Uche Okeke, the British artist Georgina Beier and the African American painter Jacob Lawrence, all of whose works are featured in the exhibition."
ISTO É UMA CÓPIA DE http://www.tate.org.uk/modern/exhibitions/centurycity/cclagos.htm
notícia da exposição "Century City: Art and Culture in the Modern Metropolis", onde o capítulo LAGOS 1955-1970 foi comissariado por Okwui Enwezor, writer, adjunct curator at the Chicago Art Institute, and director of Documenta XI, who is based in New York and Chicago, and Olu Oguibe, an artist and art historian based in New York.
a qual aparece ainda ILUSTRADA POR:
Malangatana Ngwenya, The Story of the Letter in the Hat A) The husband departs for work carrying his wife's hidden letter to her lover, 1960, D and A d'Alpoim Guedes, © The artist
note-se que Ulli Beier não é referido no "Lagos Timeline", apesar de surgir indicado na notícia da exp.
Mas a transcrição de http://www.goodreads.com/topic/show/77371-things-fall-apart-50th-anniversary
nota de Manu Herbstein, in Great African Reads (about Chinua Achebe’s Things Fall Apart), 2008
inclui mais algumas referências documentais:
Opened in Ibadan and Oshogbo in July 1961 and Enugu in February 1963.
Mphahlele is its first president.
Created to inspire and encourage the continuing development of the arts, Mbari exhibits the work of many modern artists such as Demas Nwoko and Uche Okele, Malangatana Ngwenya (Mozambique), Jacob Lawrence (U.S.), Ibrahim el-Salahi (Sudan), Vincent Kofi (Ghana), Skunder Boghossian (Ethiopia), Susanne Wenger (Austria), and others.
Mbari’s initial announcement, soliciting members for an annual fee of £1, was signed by the secretary, J. P. Clark, Information Division, Ministry of Home Affairs, Ibadan. A special membership rate of 5/- was offered to students and people residing outside Ibadan.
The MBARI was founded by a group of creative artists in Ibadan. It is a social club that is open not only to writers, artists, musicians, etc. but to all interested in the arts. The premises at Onireke Street contain: an Africana library, an exhibition room cum lecture hall and an open air restaurant. (West End Café.)
MBARI will engage in the following activities.
MBARI will exhibit the work of young Nigerian artists and also try to bring the work of artists from other African countries to Ibadan.
EXPERIMENTAL THEATRE. Among the first productions planned for the open air theatre are Brother Jero by Wole Soyinka and a new tragedy by J. P. Clark. LECTURES AND COURSES the MBARI premises will be available for cultural conferences and courses.From August 10th-17th the Department of Extra-Mural Studies is organizing a Summer School in the Visual Arts which will be conducted by the world famous architect Amancio Guedes.
CONTACT WITH AFRICAN ARTISTS OUTSIDE NIGERIA. MBARI plans a meeting of African artists in Ethiopia in December 61. A writers meeting is to follow later.
MBARI will publish a newsheet : Art News from Africa. Edited by Diana Speed. This will inform members about artistic activities all over the continent.
SCHOOLS. The library will be made available to schools on Saturday mornings. Principals of secondary schools may apply for corporate membership for their senior classes. MBARI opened in July 1961.
June 1962, Conference of African Writers at Makerere.
Takes over Black Orpheus as a quarterly.
The Nigeria Magazine, edited by; Onuora Nzekwu, 2s. each, about 80 pages. No 75, December 1962 had a literary supplement with pieces by Wole Soyinka and Chinua Achebe amongst others.
There existed various experimental art centres inspired by Ulli Beier such as the Mbari Summer Schools at Ibadan in 1962 and at Oshogbo in 1963 which prepared people for diverse background to a kind of creative freedom.
Beier (1968) noted that the launching of Mbari Club in Ibadan in the early 1960s generated much cultural awareness in Nigeria, the most successful being the Mbari Mbayo of Oshogbo held in 1962 by Dennis Williams. The idea of running a workshop for untrained artists developed from a need to service the design needs of the theatre artists and a carryover from a previous workshop experiment conducted in Ibadan first by Pancho Guedes and Julian Beinart and later by Beinart and Dennis Williams.
The Mbari workshop provided a new approach to art. They drew upon vernacular culture, folkways, folklores and their work is narrative, visually figurative. It is one of the efforts in the search for new forms and content, the exploration of fusing tradition and modernity. Student artist participants include Jacob Afolabi (b.1945-), Taiwo Olaniyi (b 1944-), Jimoh Buraimoh (b. 1943-), Muraina Oyelami (b. 1940-) Asiru Olatunde (b.1918-), Adebisi Akanji (b.1930-) and much later Nike Davies Okundaye (b. 1951-) who worked under Susanne Wenger, who initiated a project in 1962 to generate a modern Yoruba folk art.
There is the Zaria students Art society (1957 - 1961) - a group of creative artists who according to Uche Okeke in an article titled “Panorama of Nigerian Art”, formulated a guiding principle for themselves - a manifesto, as it were, which accepted change as an important element in the art and life of a people. Thus, the concept of Natural Synthesis was promulgated. This involves the resuscitation of what is best in our traditional culture and harmonizing it with what is best elsewhere in the world (Okeke 1975). This idea espoused their pre-occupation with the search for identity. A number of artists started articulating indigenous forms and philosophies by using them to explore new visual possibilities. This gave rise to a new mode of artistic expression such as the Uli School, style of elongation, abstraction, stylized naturalism with perhaps more purposive goal of carving an identity for Nigerian art."
An Appreciation of the State Of Visual Arts in Nigeria (1900-1970) Godwin Ogheneruemu Irivwieri
Department of Fine & Applied Arts, Delta State University, Abraka, Nigeria